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The United Nations, in the 2000 "Protocol To Prevent, Suppress And Punish Trafficking In Persons, Especially Women And Children, Supplementing The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime" stated that:
"'Trafficking in persons' shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs."
The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), in "Fight Trafficking in Persons" on its website (accessed Apr. 19, 2007) stated:
"What is trafficking in persons?
Trafficking in persons — also known as 'human trafficking' — is a form of modern-day slavery. Traffickers often prey on individuals who are poor, frequently unemployed or underemployed, and who may lack access to social safety nets, predominantly women and children in certain countries. Victims are often lured with false promises of good jobs and better lives, and then forced to work under brutal and inhuman conditions."
The U.S. Department of State's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons in an article entitled "Facts About Human Trafficking" on its website (accessed Dec. 7, 2005) stated:
"What is human trafficking?
Trafficking in persons is modern-day slavery, involving victims who are forced, defrauded or coerced into labor or sexual exploitation. Annually, about 600,000 to 800,000 people—mostly women and children—are trafficked across national borders which, does not count millions trafficked within their own countries.
People are snared into trafficking by many means. In some cases, physical force is used. In other cases, false promises are made regarding job opportunities or marriages in foreign countries to entrap victims."
International Labour Organization (ILO), in the Sep. 2002 report "Forced Labour, Child Labour And Human Trafficking In Europe: An ILO Perspective" stated:
"...[T]he distinction between trafficking and smuggling should be clear enough. The key elements of a trafficking relationship are the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception or abuse of power. Smuggling implies a degree of consent between the transporting agent and the smuggled individual. Trafficking implies an absence of such consent, during at least some stage of the trafficking cycle."