International Labour Organization (ILO), in the Sep. 2002 report "Forced Labour, Child Labour And Human Trafficking In Europe: An ILO Perspective" stated:

“[T]he distinction between trafficking and smuggling should be clear enough. The key elements of a trafficking relationship are the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception or abuse of power. Smuggling implies a degree of consent between the transporting agent and the smuggled individual. Trafficking implies an absence of such consent, during at least some stage of the trafficking cycle.”

Sep. 2002